Some of the causes were similar, rooted in the governing structure imposed by the 1791 constitution, while other causes developed from each colony’s particular character. The loyalist forces included 120 Black soldiers under the command of Colonel Samuel Jarvis.

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Those rebels who were arrested in Upper Canada following the 1837 uprisings were put on trial, and most were found guilty of insurrection against the Crown. Virtually any topic for the virtual learner. In 1837 armed revolts finally broke out in both Upper and Lower Canada. They suffered a series of crop failures and were subject to harsh debt-collection laws.

He was the first mayor of Toronto and led the Upper Canada Rebellion. His contributions to The Canadian Encyclopedia formed the basis of his contributions to Britannica.

One argument is that they were the inevitable result of undemocratic, unworkable colonial systems, and an imperial government in London that was out of touch and unsympathetic to reform.





He wanted to fix the relationship between government and the farmers.

It was felt hardest by the colony's farmers.

Battle of Montgomery's Tavern.









Some historians sympathize with the rebels and believe they represented the voice of the majority, or at least of the colonial Few historians see any necessary political connection with the Historians of past generations insisted that without the rebellions, change would have come more slowly, if at all.





Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. While public grievances had existed for years, it was the Rebellion in Lower Canada (present day Quebec) that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to openly revolt soon after.















In Upper Canada the rebels were led by William Lyon Mackenzie, a newspaper publisher and political radical who admired American Jacksonian democracy.



Lower Canada was downriver closest to the mouth.



The Rebellion was, rather, the unintended consequence of a sophisticated political movement that copied the organizational forms of the British Reform movement. Nearly 100 rebels were also captured. (Hundreds of A second confrontation took place a few days later near With the support of Americans who wished to liberate Canada from British rule, Mackenzie took control of During 1838, the rebels continued to send expeditions across the border.

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Britain The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present day Ontario) in December 1837.





(By Jefferys, Charles William [1869-1952], via Wikimedia Commons) A pen and ink drawing by Charles William Jefferys, showing the skirmish outside John Montgomery's tavern in Toronto on December 4, 1837, during the Rebellion in Upper Canada.

Editor at The Canadian Encyclopedia, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Get 30% your subscription today. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. The defeat of the disorganized rebels was followed by widespread Anglophone looting and burning of French Canadian settlements.

Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map.There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices.



Another view is that the insurgencies amounted to pointless bloodletting, which may have even slowed the pace of reform.One fact is clear: the rebellions prompted the appointment of Although the rebel leaders were thwarted in their goals, Papineau and Mackenzie each found a place in history as unlikely folk heroes who fought bravely, if not carefully, for democratic ideals.



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Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.Their political demands, which included democratic pleas for responsible government, were rejected in London.

The Compact dominated the running of the government. Thank you.



The Rebellion in Upper Canada was led by William Lyon Mackenzie, a Scottish-born newspaper publisher and politician who was a fierce critic of the Family Compact, an elite clique of officials and businessmen who dominated the running of the colony and its system of patronage.



… He persuaded his more radical followers to draft a republican Between 5 and 8 December 1837, approximately 1,000 men gathered at On 5 December, a motley assortment of 500 to 700 rebels bearing only hunting rifles, staves and pitchforks, marched south on Yonge Street.